Fucus spiralis on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper eulittoral rock
|Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 97.06
|Moderately exposed to very sheltered upper eulittoral bedrock and boulders are typically characterised by a band of the spiral wrack Fucus spiralis overlying the black lichens Verrucaria maura and V. mucosa. Limpets Patella vulgata, winkles Littorina spp. and barnacles Semibalanus balanoides are usually present under the fucoid fronds and on open rock. During the summer months ephemeral green algae such as Enteromorpha spp. and Ulva lactuca may also be present. This zone usually lies below a Pelvetia canaliculata zone (Pel or PelB); occasional clumps of Pelvetia may be present (usually less than common) amongst the F. spiralis. In areas of extreme shelter, such as in Scottish sealochs, the Pelvetia and F. spiralis zones often merge together forming a very narrow band. Fspi occurs above the Ascophyllum nodosum (Asc) and/or Fucus vesiculosus (Fves) zones and these two fucoids may also occur, although Fucus spiralis always dominates. Vertical surfaces in this zone, especially on moderately exposed shores, often lack the fucoids and are characterised by a barnacle-Patella community (BPat.Sem).
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