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Vocabulary

SeaDataNet device categories

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URI http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/
DescriptionTerms used to classify groups of sensors, instruments, sources of algorithmically computed data (numerical models) or samplers (collectors of water, SPM, sediment, rock, air or biota samples).
CreatorSeaDataNet
Modified2021-06-15
Version Info81
Identifier L05
Register Manager British Oceanographic Data Centre
Register Owner SeaDataNet
See Also https://github.com/nvs-vocabs/L05
Members
Identifier PrefLabel Definition Date
364 1000 Hz top-bandwidth multi-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 1000 Hz (sampling interval ranging from 2-0.5 msec) plus a multiple strings of towed hydrophones (streamers) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
363 1000 Hz top-bandwidth single-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 1000 Hz (sampling interval ranging from 2-0.5 msec) plus a single string of towed hydrophones (streamer) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
365 2000 Hz top-bandwidth multi-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 2000 Hz (sampling interval ranging from 0.5-0.25 msec) plus a multiple strings of towed hydrophones (streamers) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
372 2000 Hz top-bandwidth single-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 2000 Hz (sampling interval ranging from 0.5-0.25 msec) plus a single string of towed hydrophones (streamer) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
375 250 Hz top-bandwidth multi-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 250 Hz (sampling interval ranging from 2-8 msec) plus a multiple strings of towed hydrophones (streamers) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
362 250 Hz top-bandwidth single-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 250 Hz (sampling interval ranging from 2-8 msec) plus a single string of towed hydrophones (streamer) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
374 60 Hz top-bandwidth multi-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 60 Hz (sampling interval higher than 8 msec) plus a multiple strings of towed hydrophones (streamers) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
371 60 Hz top-bandwidth single-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to 60 Hz (sampling interval higher than 8 msec) plus a single string of towed hydrophones (streamer) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
366 >2000 Hz top-bandwidth multi-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to >2000 Hz (sampling interval lower than 0.25 msec) plus a multiple strings of towed hydrophones (streamers) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
373 >2000 Hz top-bandwidth single-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source with a frequency up to >2000 Hz (sampling interval lower than 0.25 msec) plus a single string of towed hydrophones (streamer) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
367 >2000 Hz top-bandwidth sub-bottom penetrator and mud profiler systems Devices that provide information on unconsolidated sediment structure through transmission and reception of an energy source with a frequency corresponding to a sampling interval lower than 0.25 msec. 2010-11-18
384 ADVs and turbulence probes ADV is the acronym for acoustic doppler velocimeter. The group includes all in-situ instruments that make high frequency measurements of three-dimensional current velocity in order to determine the extent of turbulence within a water body. 2010-09-15
386 Aerosol physical characterisers Instruments that determine physical attributes such as size and abundance of atmospheric aerosols. 2010-10-01
387 Aethalometers Instruments that quantify atmospheric particulate carbon ('black carbon') concentrations. 2010-10-01
AQPL Aquapulse A marine seismic source where a propane-oxygen mixture is exploded inside a steel cylinder. 2010-10-18
POS16 Argos GPS-localised transmitters { "mode": "GPS localisation", "accuracy": "better than 100m" } 2015-12-09
POS17 Argos doppler-localised transmitters { "mode": "Doppler-derived Argos localisation", "accuracy": "better than 250m (class 3) to worse than 1500m (class 0)" } 2015-12-09
MOD03 Atmosphere models Numerical models the make predictions in the atmosphere assuming that it is a closed system that doesn't interact with the hydrosphere. 2012-07-16
314 Atmospheric chemistry remote sensors Instruments that measure the intensity and nature of electromagnetic radiation in a manner optimised for the quantification of chemical compounds in the atmosphere. 2017-03-09
LAB49 Atomic fluorescence spectrometers Instruments that illuminate the vapour from volatilised samples with light and quantify the intensity of light emitted, which is usually proportional to concentration. 2016-11-29
POS10 Automatic Ranging Grid Overlay DM 54 receivers { "frequency": "1.6-2MHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "450km", "accuracy": "4-7m down to 20m at maximum range", "operational": "from 1977 (mid-80s in Europe)", "notes": "Survey positioning system." } 2015-12-09
MOD08 Biological and biogeochemical models Numerical models that make predictions of biological parameters, including ecosystem models. 2012-07-16
BOMR Boomer A marine seismic energy source in which capacitors are charged to high voltage and then discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer consists of a flat coil with a spring-loaded aluminium plate. Eddy currents force the plates to separate sharply, producing a low pressure region between the plates into which the water rushes generating a pressure wave by implosion. 2010-10-18
130 CTD A reusable instrument that always simultaneously measures conductivity and temperature (for salinity) and pressure (for depth). 2018-04-06
131 CTD undulators An undulating platform towed behind a ship carrying an instrument that measures temperature, conductivity and pressure (for depth) and possibly other instruments such as fluorometers. Current thinking is that this is a platform category and not an instrument category and so its inclusion in this vocabulary was an error. Its usage is not recommended. 2018-04-06
CHRP Chirp Chirp systems emit a 'swept-frequency signal', meaning that the transmitted signal is emitted over a period of time and over a set range of frequencies. This repeatable (transmitted) waveform can be varied in terms of pulse length, frequency bandwidth, and phase/amplitude. A matched filter, or correlation process, collapses the swept frequency modulated (FM) received signal into a pulse of short duration, maximizing the signal-to-noise-ratio. The reflected signal is received by a tuned transducer array that generates the outgoing acoustic energy. Chirps operate within a range of 400Hz - 24 kHz and are used for the first 20-30 metres of unconsolidated sediments. 2010-10-18
COLCMP Colour comparators Sets of standard materials that provide reference colour charts for the quantification of the colour of an object by visual comparison. 2014-09-01
MOD05 Coupled models Numerical models that make predictions in both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere by considering both spheres as a single system. 2012-07-16
POS08 Decca Navigator System HiFix receivers { "frequency": "1.6MHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "under 100km", "accuracy": "better than 10m: maximum accuracy at 50km range is 1.5m", "operating": "1962 to 2000", "notes": "Not for general navigation. Chains usually set up for specific surveys." } 2015-12-09
POS01 Decca Navigator System main chain receivers { "frequency": "70 and 130kHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "450km (day) to 750km (night)", "accuracy": "50m(day) to 200m (night) in good conditions down to 2km near range limit", "operating": "WWII to 2001-03 (2000-03-31 in UK)", "notes": " Transmitter groups, each with a master and three slaves" } 2015-12-09
POS04 Differential Global Positioning System receivers { "accuracy": "better than 100m to better than 10m", "notes": "GPS augmented by a network of fixed ground stations that continuously broadcast the difference between their true locations and the location determined from the satellites." } 2015-12-09
389 Expendable bathythermographs Disposable, free-falling probes that measure temperature in relation to depth using a thermistor and electronic data acquisition system. Probes are dropped into the water and a temperature signal is transferred to the platform by a wire that breaks when the wire is out. Depth is calculated as a function of time to descend and a known constant rate of descent. 2018-10-24
FFES Fish-finder echosounders Instruments primarily designed to detect shoals of fish through transmission and reception of acoustic signals. They are often optimised for this purpose through the use of multiple frequencies. 2011-11-26
FLXS Flexichoc An implosive energy source for marine shooting. Two plates are separated by compressed air until they lock into position. The air between them is then pumped out creating a vacuum. On the signal the plates are unlocked and the water pressure forces them together creating a shock wave in the water. 2010-10-18
FLXT Flexotir A seismic method for marine shooting whereby small charges are propelled through a rubber hose by water under pressure into a steel cage where they are detonated. Holes in the cage allow the water repelled by the explosion to flow out and in thus dissipating some of the energy in the bubble effect. 2013-02-26
GIAG GI-gun A marine seismic source where a pair of conventional airguns (one, the generator, fires in the conventional manner; the second, known as the injector) fires some milliseconds later to prevent bubble from collapsing. Could be used in true GI mode (volume of injector twice of volume of generator), harmonic mode (same volume of generator and injector) or true airgun (no delay between generator and injector). 2010-10-18
LAB39 Geiger counters Instruments that measure the amount of alpha, beta or gamma radiation through quantification of the ionization of a low-pressure gas contained in a tube. Sometimes referred to as Geiger-Müller counters. 2012-08-30
POS02 Global Navigation Satellite System receivers {"notes": "Based on a network of satellites deployed by the former Soviet Union. The network was initiated in 1976 but fell into disrepair before full global coverage was reached during the political upheaval of the early 90s"} 2015-12-09
MOD01 Global models Numerical models that make predictions over the whole globe. 2012-07-16
POS21 Hyperfix receivers { "frequency": "1.6-3.4MHz", "mode": "hyperbolic (usual), circular or combined", "range": "250km (night) to 700km (day)", "accuracy": "up to 0.5-1m", "operating": "until 2000", "notes": "Racal positioning system similar to Decca HiFix based on temporary or permanent transmitter chains comprising a master plus at least two slaves." } 2015-12-09
POS25 Kinematic Global Positioning System receivers { "accuracy": "Horizontal Accuracy: Fixed RTK mode: 1-5cm, Float RTK mode: 20cm-1m. Vertical accuracy : twice the horizontal accuracy", "operating": "Since the mid-1990s", "notes": "Real Time Kinematic (RTK) satellite navigation technique based on the use of carrier phase measurements of the GPS signals where a single reference station or a network of reference stations provides the real-time corrections." } 2015-12-09
LVLST Levels and staffs Optical instruments and graduated poles used in surveying to determine the elevation of a location relative to a datum level. 2017-09-06
POS05 Long Range Navigation version C receivers { "frequency": "70-130kHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "950kmto 1700km (day): 650km to 1250km (day)", "operational": "1947 to 2010. Maintained as GPS backup in the EU.", "notes": "Global navigation based on transmitters in several European countries, Japan, Canada (until 2002-10) and USA (until 2010-02-08)." } 2015-12-09
POS06 Marine chronometers {"notes": "Timepieces of sufficient precision to allow their use of portable time standards."} 2015-12-09
390 Mechanical bathythermographs Tethered probes that measure temperature in relation to depth using a temperature and pressure package that is lowered into the water and subsequently retrieved using a winch. The profile of temperature is recorded mechanically by etchings on a glass slide. Depth is calculated as a function of pressure. 2018-10-24
MOD06 Meteorological models Numerical models that make predictions of weather parameters such as air temperature, pressure, humidity and winds. 2012-07-16
POS20 Motorola Mini-Ranger receivers { "frequency": "5410-5890MHz", "range": "up to 75km", "accuracy": "up to 2m", "notes": "A family of short-wave receivers that determine position by determining the line-of-sight distance from 3 or more transmitters set up for the survey." } 2015-12-09
POS03 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System receivers { "accuracy": "better than 100m", "notes": "Global navigation based on a network of satellites deployed and maintained by the USA." } 2015-12-09
POS18 Navy Navigation Satellite System receivers { "mode": "Doppler-derived localisation", "accuracy": "better than 10km or 2km if combined with relative water velocity em-log" } 2015-12-09
MOD04 Ocean models Numerical models the make predictions in the hydrosphere assuming that it is a closed system that doesn't interact with the atmosphere. 2012-07-16
POS15 Omega receivers { "frequency": "10-14kHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "up to 15000km", "accuracy": "better than 7.4km", "operational": "1968-1997", "notes": "Global long-range but low accuracy navigation system" } 2015-12-09
PERMON Performance monitors Sensors or instruments that monitor whether a platform or environmental sensors on the platform are functioning. 2014-07-22
MOD07 Physical oceanographic models Numerical models that make predictions of physical oceanographic parameters such as water body temperature, salinity, currents and waves. 2012-07-16
394 Pinger sub-bottom profilers Marine seismic sources that send sound pulses into the sub-sea floor sediments. The sound pulses bounce off the sea floor and subsequent buried sediment layers according to differences in their acoustic impedance (hardness) and in turn, their density. Pingers are single channel, high frequency systems that typically operate between 2 kHz to 20 kHz. 2020-06-25
POS14 Pulse8 receivers { "frequency": "100kHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "250km to 750km", "accuracy": "30m to 500m", "operational": "1970s to late 1990s" } 2015-12-09
POS13 Rana receivers { "frequency": "around 300-400kHz", "mode": "hyperbolic" } 2015-12-09
MOD02 Regional models Numerical models that make predictions within a limited geographic area. 2012-07-16
315 Sea ice remote sensorsDEPRECATED Instruments that measure the intensity and nature of electromagnetic radiation in a manner optimised for sea ice detection and quantification. 2017-03-09
POS07 Sextants {"notes": "Optical instruments that accurately measure the angle between pairs of visible celestial bodies such as the sun, moon or stars. "} 2015-12-09
SPRK Sparker A seismic source in which an electrical discharge in water is the energy source. 2013-02-26
POS12 Système leger de measure de distance receivers { "frequency": "420-450MHz", "mode": "hyperbolic or circular", "range": "400km hyperbolic; 75-100km circular", "accuracy": "better than 2m below horizon (10m above horizon)", "operational": "1980s to 1995", "notes": "Navigation and positioning system for the North Sea petroleum industry." } 2015-12-09
POS09 Toran receivers { "frequency": "around 2MHz", "mode": "hyperbolic", "range": "150-200km", "accuracy": "better than 20m", "notes": "Mostly used for aircraft." } 2015-12-09
POS11 Trident receivers { "frequency": "420-450MHz", "mode": "circular", "range": "150km", "accuracy": "better than 3m", "notes": "Survey positioning system." } 2015-12-09
POS22 Trisponder navigation systems { "range": "80km", "accuracy": "1m (resolution 0.1m)", "notes": "Family of microwave short-range positioning systems with vessel equipment and three shore transponders (master and two slaves) set up specifically for surveys." } 2015-12-09
POS26 Ultra Short Baseline Positioning Systems Systems dedicated to the positioning of subsea vehicles such as ROV and AUV. They are based on acoustic transmitted signals between one or several transponders and one acoustic antenna installed on a surface vessel. The transponders are mounted on the underwater vehicle or are fixed on the seafloor. These underwater acoustic positioning systems are coupled with inertial navigation systems. 2012-11-13
VSHC Vaporchoc A marine seismic energy source in which a quantity of superheated steam under high pressure is iniected into water. Subsequent condensation of the steam attenuates bubble oscillation. 2010-10-18
LAB40 Volume measures Pieces of apparatus that determine the volume of a liquid sample or dispense measured volumes of liquid. Includes devices covering a wide range of sophistication from measuring cylinders, syringes and manual pipettes through to programmable electronic instruments. 2012-11-29
WDRG Wire drags Wires, usually several thousand feet in length, maintained horizontally at any desired depth by means of attached weights, buoyed at intervals, towed by a power boat at each end, and used to locate submerged obstructions projecting above the depth at which it is set. 2017-09-06
LAB26 X-ray diffractometers Instruments that identify crystalline solids by measuring the characteristic spaces between layers of atoms or molecules in a crystal. 2008-01-10
LAB25 X-ray fluorescence analysers Instruments that identify and quantify the elemental constituents of a sample from the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the atoms in the sample when excited by X-ray radiation. 2008-01-10
LAB17 accelerator mass spectrometers Instruments measuring the mass-to-charge ratio of the products of sample molecule disassociation, atom ionisation and ion acceleration in a particle accelerator. 2008-01-10
307 accelerometers Instruments that measure non-gravitational accelerations acting upon a spacecraft. 2008-01-10
183 acoustic backscatter sensors Instrument that measures the amount of sound energy transmitted into the water column returned to the instrument. 2007-11-20
357 acoustic tracking systems A network of acoustic sensors that determine the location of a sound source by triangulation such as acoustically active float tracking systems. 2011-02-02
LAB32 acoustic velocity systems Instruments that measure the speed or velocity of sound, including P-waves, in samples of solids, liquids or gases. 2013-02-26
64 active fishing gear Apparatus where capture is based on chasing the target species (e.g. a trawl). 2010-07-30
353 active fluorometers Fluorometers that measure photosynthetic parameters by taking measurements whilst manipulating the phytoplankton with controlled high-intensity illumination such as pump and probe and FRRF. 2013-02-26
13 aerosol samplers A device that collects a sample of aerosol (dry particles or liquid droplets) from the atmosphere. 2013-02-26
SNAG airgun A marine seismic source which injects a bubble of highly compressed air into the water. Oscillations of the bubble as it alternatively expands and contracts generate a sonic wave whose frequency depends on the amount of air in the bubble, its pressure, and the water depth. 2010-10-18
ARAG airgun array A marine seismic source where multiple airguns of different sizes are tuned so that a broader frequency spectrum will be generated. 2010-10-18
379 altimeters Instruments that measure their distance above a specified elevation such as the sea surface or the seabed. Classification includes acoustic and pressure-based instruments that are designed to provide platform z co-ordinate spatial coverage in the atmosphere or a water body. It excludes remote sensing instruments such as LIDAR and satellite radar altimeters designed to map surface elevation. 2012-12-18
101 anemometers Instrument that measures wind speed and direction at a single elevation. 2013-02-26
382 atmospheric gas analysers In-situ instruments that can determine the proportion of one or more gaseous components of the atmosphere. 2010-09-15
308 atmospheric radiometers Sensors that measure the intensity an nature of electromagnetic radiation in a manner optimised for the quantification of atmospheric phenomena. 2008-01-10
ATRANS atmospheric transparency quantifiers Instruments that quantify the degree of scattering and absorption of light passing through the atmosphere, including instruments that quantify aerosol and particulate concentrations (e.g. black carbon) and instruments measure meteorological visibility. 2013-04-23
LAB10 atomic absorption spectrometers Instruments that volatilise the sample, illuminate the resultant vapour with light wavelengths matched to the analyte of interest and quantify the radiation absorbed, which is proportional to concentration. 2008-01-10
LAB04 autoanalysers Instruments that continuously draw samples through plumbing adding reagents whilst controlling the environment to produce a chemical reaction before passing the sample to a detector, e.g. the automated colorimetric determination of nutrients. 2008-01-10
LAB13 balances and scales Devices that determine the mass or weight of a sample. 2010-07-02
312 bathymetric LiDARs Instruments that measure the depth of a water body by determining the distances from the platform to the surface and the bed by timing reflected pulses of laser light. 2009-10-16
132 bathythermographs Instruments that measure vertical profiles of sea temperature by either lowering a pressure plus temperature senor package (MBT) or dropping a free falling disposable sensor (XBT). 2007-11-20
62 beam trawls Nets towed over the sea floor having the horizontal net opening provided by a wooden or metal beam that disrupts the surface of the bed. 2010-07-30
LAB23 bench fluorometers Instruments that determinesthe amount of chlorophyll in in-vitro samples by measuring the quantity of red light (around 685nm) emitted following excitation by pulses of blue light (around 460-470nm). 2008-01-10
LAB27 bench particle sizers Instruments that measure the size spectrum of particles in a water or sediment sample. 2017-08-08
151 benthic incubation chambers A device that isolates a portion of seabed plus overlying water from its surroundings. Either returns the entire system to the surface or incorporates sampling devices and/or in-situ sensors. 2008-01-10
24 benthos samplers A mechanical device that collects organisms from the seafloor. Includes dredges, sledges, weighted nets like beam trawls, and ROV manipulators. 2019-12-19
393 binoculars and terrestrial scopes Optical tools used to magnify and observe terrestrial objects that are distant from the observer. This includes tools such as binoculars, monoculars, terrestrial telescopes and spotting scopes. It excludes astronomical telescopes, camera devices, and tools which enlarge objects close to the observer such as hand lenses. 2020-06-04
BLUMS bioluminescence sensors Submersible instruments which measure visible emissions from bioluminescent organisms by stimulating intracellular chemiluminescence through mechanical-stressors, such as turbulent water-flow, and sensing by photodetectors, such as photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes. Excludes bioluminescence biosensors which detect the presence of target chemicals or compounds using engineered-bioluminescent bacteria. 2014-02-04
85 biorectors and chemostats Devices in which controlled conditions are maintained for a chemical process to be carried out by organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. 2012-08-02
313 bird detection radars X-band and S-band radar systems developed for the detection, tracking and counting of birds in flight. 2013-02-26
358 bubble detectors Instruments that measure the concentration and size of air bubbles in the water column. 2008-01-10
311 cameras All types of photographic equipment used to record visual images. Includes stills, video, film and digital systems. 2020-09-18
LAB38 cavity enhanced absorption spectrometers Instruments that illuminate a sample inside an optical cavity, typically using laser light, and measure the concentration or amount of a species in gas phase by absorption spectroscopy. Techniques include cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS). 2014-12-16
83 centrifuges Devices that separate the liquid and solid phases of a sample through forces exerted by rapid rotation. 2013-02-26
LAB34 chemiluminescence analysers Laboratory apparatus that detemines the concentration of a chemical species by quantification of the electromagnetic radiation (usually visible light) produced by a chemical reaction. 2012-03-22
395 clock synchronisers Instruments that coordinate the time or frequency of independent time devices usually across networks. 2021-04-20
CCOV cloud cover quantifiers Instruments that measure the proportion of the sky covered by cloud (cloud amount) and/or the height of the cloud above the ground (cloud base). 2013-04-23
392 colonisation substrata Natural or artificial materials deployed in a marine or artificial environment for a given period to act as standardised, passive settlement sampling devices (e.g. settlement plates). They are used to determine the extent of colonisation and/or the diversity of settled organisms. 2020-04-07
LAB03 colorimeters Instruments measuring the amount of light of a given wavelength absorbed by a sample of solution to determine the concentration of a specific coloured solute. 2008-01-10
58 continuous air samplers A device that continuously supplies a flow of air either to an analytical instrument, over a sensor or from which discrete samples may be drawn. 2013-02-26
31 continuous water samplers A device that continuously supplies a flow of water either to an analytical instrument, over a sensor or from which samples may be drawn. 2013-02-26
CSEM controlled-source electromagnetic systems Systems that measure sub-surface resistivity structure through the measurement of the electromegnetic fields resulting from stimulation by a towed source. Includes systems incorporating both transmitter and receiver and systems where the transmitter and receiver are separate. 2016-03-10
114 current meters Instrument that measures current speed and direction at a single depth. 2013-02-26
115 current profilers Instrument that measures current speed and direction at multiple predetermined depths simultaneously. 2013-02-26
DLOG data loggers Electronic devices that record data over time or in relation to location either with a built-in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors. 2017-12-05
POS24 dead reckoning {"notes": "The process of estimating current position based upon a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time, and course."} 2015-12-09
61 demersal trawl nets Nets towed over the sea floor designed to sample species living on or near the bottom. 2010-07-30
11 discrete air samplers A device that collects a sample of air from the atmosphere and stores it, usually under pressure, for subsequent analysis. 2013-02-26
30 discrete water samplers A device that collects an in-situ discrete water sample from any depth and returns it to the surface without contamination by the waters through which it passes, such as a water bottle. 2013-02-26
351 dissolved gas sensors Instrument that measures the concentration of gases, generally oxygen, dissolved in the water column. 2013-02-26
ERTQ earthquake A sudden release of stress in the Earth's crust that creates energy in the form of seimic waves. 2010-10-18
EMSR electromagnetic sensors In-situ sensors that simultaneuously measure electrical and magnetic fields. They are usually moored on the seabed for long periods of time for determination of deep structure through monitoring magnetotelluric currents. However, some may also be configured to be receivers for active electromagnetic surveys such as CSEM. 2019-12-11
LAB08 electron microprobes Instruments that chemically analyse a small area of a sample by bombarding it with electrons and spectroscopically assaying the resulting X-Ray emissions. 2008-01-10
LAB07 electron microscopes Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of electrons behaving as waves. 2008-01-10
LAB01 elemental analysers Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material. 2008-01-10
EQUIL equilibrators Devices in which samples and carriers are brought into chemical equilibrium prior to analysis. For example, a shower head or tower full of marbles used to equilibrate water samples with air that is subsequently analysed for carbon dioxide to give pCO2 in the water sample. 2013-04-23
354 expendable CTDs Instruments that measure vertical profiles of sea temperature and salinity with a free falling disposable temperature and conductivity sensor package. 2007-11-20
70 fish aggregating devices Any kind of permanent, semi-permanent or temporary structure designed to attract fishes (specially tunas) and used in ocean purse seine fisheries. FADs can be moored or drifting devices and consist of surface or sub-surface buoys or floats to which underwater ropes, lines or chains can be attached. The most sophisticated type can be equipped with an echo sounder to estimate the biomass under it, a GPS to locate the device, and either a VHF, Immarsat or Iridium connection to periodically send the information to the vessel which owns it. 2019-09-04
LAB37 flow cytometers Instruments that suspend cells in a stream of fluid past detection sensors whilst illuminating them with laser light. Used for cell counting, sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering. 2012-08-02
LAB36 flow injection analysers Instruments that inject a sample into a flowing carrier solution, adding reagents whilst controlling the environment to produce a chemical reaction before passing the sample to a detector. 2012-08-02
388 flow meters Sensors that quantify the rate at which fluids (e.g. water or air) pass through sensor packages, instruments or sampling devices. 2011-05-20
LAB06 fluorescence microscopes Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption of visible light. Includes conventional and inverted instruments. 2008-01-10
113 fluorometers Instrument that measures the amount of stimulated electromagnetic radiation produced by pulses of electromagnetic radiation emitted into the water column. 2013-02-26
66 flushing drills Devices primarily designed to drill wells through sediment or rock that flush the drill spoil back to the surface where it is examined to provide lithological data through the process known as mud logging. 2011-08-26
12 fog samplers A device that condenses a sample of fog from the atmosphere. 2013-02-26
LAB22 gamma-ray spectrometers Instruments measuring the relative levels of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths in the gamma-ray waveband. 2011-04-15
LAB19 gas chromatograph mass spectrometers Instruments separating gases, volatile substances or substances dissolved in a volatile solvent by transporting an inert gas through a column packed with a sorbent to a detector for assay by a mass spectrometer. 2008-01-10
LAB02 gas chromatographs Instruments separating gases, volatile substances or substances dissolved in a volatile solvent by transporting an inert gas through a column packed with a sorbent to a detector for assay. 2008-01-10
LAB24 gel permeation chromatographs Instruments that separate components in aqueous or organic solution based on molecular size generally for molecular weight determination. 2008-01-10
370 geothermometers Instruments carrying a sensor that determines the temperature (degree of hotness) within geological units. 2010-11-18
65 gill nets Nets drifting in the sea or standing on the sea floor in which fish become entangled, usually through their gill covers. 2011-08-26
158 gravimeters Instrument that makes measurements of the Earth's gravity field. 2013-02-26
EXLH high penetration low resolution explosives Groups all explosives that allows high penetration but low resolution surveys. 2013-02-26
LAB11 high performance liquid chromatographs Instruments that separate and analyse mixtures of substances by high pressure pumping the sample through a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. 2008-01-10
EXHL high resolution low penetration explosives Groups all explosives that allows high resolution but low penetration surveys. 2013-02-26
67 high-speed plankton samplers A fine-meshed net or filter towed behind a moving vessel that collects a single sample for a tow. Samples microzooplankton, mesozooplankton and nekton. 2011-11-25
LAB51 holographic microscopes Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of digital inline holography with numerical reconstruction instead of reflection and absorption of visible light. 2021-01-25
369 hydrophones Devices containing transducers that convert underwater sound waves into electrical signals. 2010-02-19
ICEP ice thickness profilers Instruments that measure the freeboard, draught or thickness of ice sheets or sea ice. These are not to be confused with tethered ice profilers that are platforms that sample the water column beneath sea ice. 2013-04-23
82 in-situ incubators A rig that allows water samples to be retained from where they were collected whilst physically separated from their surroundings. Includes small-scale incubation rigs and mesocosms. 2008-01-10
150 in-situ particle sizers Sensors or instruments physically located in any body of water that measure the size spectrum of particles suspended in it. 2017-08-08
182 inapplicable There is no appropriate value. To be used in cases where metadata elements cannot be set null due to schema constraints. 2011-08-26
LAB14 inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopes Instruments that pass nebulised samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomised and excited. The de-excitation optical emissions at characteristic wavelengths are spectroscopically analysed. 2008-01-10
LAB15 inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometers Instruments that pass nebulised samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomised and ionised. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are quantified in a quadrupole mass spectrometer. 2008-01-10
POS19 inertial navigation systems {"notes": "Systems that determine spatial position using high-accuracy inertial measurements plus input from other sensors such as doppler current sensors to determine platform 3-D location by interpolation between satellite network fixes."} 2015-12-09
86 inorganic carbon analysers Instruments measuring carbonate in sediments and inorganic carbon in the water column. 2016-10-03
112 inverted echosounders Instruments that locate acoustic reflectors such as fronts in the water column by transmitting pulses of sound from the seabed and determing reflection return times. 2013-02-26
LAB45 ion chromatography analysers Instruments that use ion chromatography to separate ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to an ion exchanger resin. Sample solutions pass through a pressurized chromatographic column where ions are absorbed by the resin and subsequently eluted using an ion extraction liquid. The retention time of different species determines the ionic concentrations in the sample. 2016-02-01
LAB09 ion microprobes Instruments that isotopically analyse a small area of sample by bombarding it with ions to form a plasma that is analysed in a mass spectrometer. 2008-01-10
LAB48 isotope ratio mass spectrometers Instruments that measure isotopic ratios using an electron ionisation source. Atoms in purified samples are ionised using a beam of electrons under vacuum. Subsequently, ions are focused into a beam by an electromagnet and then separated into individual beams based on their mass/charge ratio. 2016-03-10
LBTG labelling tags Passive devices attached to captured organisms to specifically identify them when recaptured after release. 2013-02-26
LAB33 laboratory autosamplers Laboratory apparatus that automatically introduces one or more samples with a predetermined volume or mass into an analytical instrument. 2012-03-01
LAB41 laboratory camerasDEPRECATED Code deprecated on 18Sep2020: created in error. Description was: All types of photographic equipment that are hand-held or part of laboratory apparatus including stills, video, film and digital systems. 2020-09-18
LAB42 laboratory optical rangefinders Devices used to detect the distance between sensor and sample or presence/absence of an object based a light (often infrared and possibly laser) transmitter and a photoelectric receiver. 2013-12-19
310 laser altimeters Instruments that determine the distance between the platform and the Earth's surface by timing reflected pulses of laser light. 2012-12-18
LAB21 liquid scintillation counters Instruments assaying alpha and beta radiation by quantitative detection of visible light produced by the passage of rays or particles through a suitable scintillant incorporated into the sample. 2018-07-30
116 lowered current profilers An acoustic doppler current meter lowered and raised vertically from a surface platform, typically a ship. 2007-11-20
LAB31 magnetic susceptibility systems Sensors, probes and meters that measure the degree to which a sample or part thereof is influenced by a magnetic field. 2013-02-26
159 magnetometers Instrument that makes measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. 2013-02-26
90 manual biota samplers A simple tool like a hammer, saw or even just a hand for the collection of biota samples. 2013-02-26
57 manual rock samplers A simple tool like a hammer, saw or even just a hand for the collection of rock samples. 2013-02-26
MVBR marine vibroseis A marine seismic source generating sweeps of controlled varying frequency (from a few Hz to hundreds of Hz) and duration. 2010-10-18
LAB16 mass spectrometers Instruments used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions most generally used to find the composition of a sample by generating a mass spectrum representing the masses of sample components. 2008-01-10
383 metal analysers In-situ instruments that can determine the total, dissolved or particulate concentration of one or more metallic elements (including trace metalloids like arsenic) in a water body. 2010-09-15
92 meteorological LiDARs Instruments that measure meteorological phenomena such as wind speed, wind direction and air quality remotely by determining the distances from a platform to a reflective surface in the atmosphere or at ground level, calculated from timed return rates of continuous or pulsed emissions of laser light. 2016-06-06
102 meteorological packages Instrument that makes routine meteorological measurements on the atmosphere, typically air pressure, temperature and humidity. 2013-02-26
184 microstructure sensors Fast response sensors sampled at high frequency to determine the distribution of water body properties on a millimetric scale. 2012-02-23
157 multi-beam echosounders Instruments that measure water depth along several tracks parallel to the platform track by timing pulses of sound reflected on the seafloor. 2013-02-26
154 multi-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source of unspecified frequency plus a multiple strings of towed hydrophones (streamers) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
MMIS multi-frame imaging sonar High-frequency (>1 MHz), possibly multiple frequency, active sonar systems that provide images approaching the same quality as optical video cameras. They may be deployed in many ways including hand-held by divers, attached to profiling instruments, AUVs and ROVs, towed fish or moorings. They have many scientific, commercial and military applications including observation and identification of fish, seabed characterisation, underwater vessel inspections and mine detection. Examples of this type of system are DIDSON (Dual-frequency IDentification SONar) and LIMIS (Limpet Mine Imaging Sonar). Any instrument that may be considered the underwater acoustic equivalent of an optical video camera belongs in this category. 2013-02-18
68 multinet A system comprising several nets that can be opened and closed sequentially to collect a series of samples during a tow or haul. Samples microzooplankton, mesozooplankton and nekton. 2011-11-25
NATS natural source Any kind of natural source of acoustic waves, that can be used in passive seismics. 2013-02-26
69 neuston net A fine-meshed net designed to collect small size organisms, aggregates, or litter on top of or close to the surface of a water column (top 10 to 50 centimetres) including for example microzooplankton, mesozooplankton, nekton, microplastic or other litter. 2018-02-20
LAB18 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers Instruments that identify and quantify magnetically active chemical entities by subjecting a sample to orthogonal magnetic and electrical fields. 2008-01-10
181 nutrient analysers Instrument that makes in-situ measurements of one or more of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, urea, phosphate or silicate dissolved in the water column. 2013-02-26
91 observers Humans who estimate a parameter through observation of a phenomenon such as bird counts, bird song mappings and visual wave observations. 2014-11-18
304 ocean colour radiometers Sensors that measure the intensity and nature of electromagnetic radiation in a manner optimised for the determination of ocean chlorophyll concentration. 2008-01-10
123 optical backscatter sensors Instrument that measures the amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted into the water column returned to the instrument. 2007-11-20
LAB05 optical microscopes Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of visible light. Includes conventional and inverted instruments. 2008-01-10
355 pH sensors Instruments that measure the hydrogen ion concentration in the water column. 2013-02-26
32 particulates samplers A system that collects samples of water column particulates such as in-situ high volume filtration systems liks SAPs. 2007-11-20
63 passive fishing gear Apparatus where capture is based on the movement of the target species towards the gear (e.g. creels and fish traps). 2010-07-30
23 pelagic trawl nets A net towed through the water column designed to sample free-swimming nekton or fish. 2007-11-20
361 penetrometers Dynamic or passive devices that determine the consistency or hardness of soil or sediment by measuring the depth or rate of penetration of a needle or cone rig into it when a known force is applied. 2010-02-19
360 piezometers Devices that measure fluid (air, gas, water, or oil) pressure within soil, sediment, rock or concrete providing information such as water table level in an aquifer system. 2010-02-19
352 plankton categorisers and counters Instruments that categorise and/or count plankton, and/or enable 2D/3D spatial reconstruction of plankton in the water column. 2020-07-30
22 plankton nets A fine-meshed net designed to collect small size organisms, aggregates, or litter in the water column including for example microzooplankton, mesozooplankton, nekton, microplastic or other litter. 2018-02-20
21 plankton recorders A device that continuously samples a flow of water, separating and fixing plankton for subsequent identification and counting. 2013-02-26
LAB43 plate readers Laboratory instruments detect biological, chemical or physical events in samples held in multiple (typically 6, 24, 96, 384 or 1536) wells arranged in a matrix in a flat plate. Samples in the plate wells are simultaneously assayed optically using techniques such as spectrophotometry or spectrofluorometry. 2015-02-03
385 platform attitude sensors Instruments that measure platform orientation or rates of platform motion or acceleration in any direction or along any axis. Excludes inertial navigation systems that are designed to determine platform location with respect to an external co-ordinate reference system. 2010-09-15
359 plummets Devices comprising a weight attached to the end of a graduated rope used to measure point water depths. 2010-02-19
381 precipitation gauges Instruments that measure either the rate of fall or integrated amount of rain, snow, sleet, hail or graupel. 2010-09-15
14 precipitation samplers A device that collects a sample of precipitation (rain, hail or snow) as it falls. 2013-02-26
MPIS profiling sonars Active sonar systems that provide a cross-sectional profile of a target area. These instruments typically emit a series of acoustic pulses in a beam pattern like a spot or pencil beam and the peak echo return is recorded. They provide a digitised version of echo returns as opposed to multicoloured images by imaging sonars. They are generally deployed on survey vessels pointing the transducer down towards the target. Applications of profiling sonars include cross-sectional profiling in pipeline and trench survey, bottom profiles, and surveying of underwater cave systems or manmade structures like road and rail bridge foundations. Examples of this type of system are Tritech Super SeaKing DFP Profiler and Imagenex 881A Profiling Sonar Head. 2021-06-15
LAB46 proton transfer reaction mass spectrometers Instruments that ionise trace gas molecules by proton transfer from protonated water, H3O. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are then quantified in a quadrupole or time-of-flight mass spectrometer. 2016-02-01
72 queen scallop dredgesDEPRECATED Code deprecated on 20Dec2019: created in error. Description was: The dredges used to target queen scallops are wider and higher than a traditional scallop dredge. They do not have tooth bar across the front, instead they have either a metal grid, or tickler chains to get the scallops to lift up off the seabed and swim into the dredge. The scallops then fall back into a bag made of metal rings. Some fishermen are replacing the tickler chain and metal grid with a strip of rubber matting across the front of the dredge (source seafish.org). 2019-12-19
186 radar altimeters Instruments that determine the distance between the platform and the Earth's surface by timing reflected electromagnetic radiation, usually microwaves. 2011-04-15
POS23 radio tracking systems {"notes": "Directional radio receivers that determine the location of a mobile radio transmitter (such as a bird or animal tag) by triangulation."} 2015-12-09
122 radiometers Instrument that measures the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in either the atmosphere or the water column. 2013-02-26
103 radiosondes A balloon-borne package equipped with a radio transmitter and meteorological sensors typically measuring temperature, pressure, and humidity. 2007-11-20
356 redox potential sensors Instruments that measure the tendency of the water column to either gain or lose electrons when it is subject to change by introduction of a new species. 2013-02-26
LAB44 refractometers Instruments that measure the refractive index of a sample. 2015-02-11
53 rock corers A device that extracts rock either by chipping or drilling. 2018-09-20
54 rock dredges A device dragged across the seabed designed to collect loose rock samples. 2007-11-20
LAB29 rulers Devices that allow one or more physical dimensions of a sample or specimen to be determined by visible comparison against marked graduations in units of measurement of dimension length. 2010-04-22
350 salinity sensor Instrument that simultaneously measures electrical conductivity and temperature in the water column to provide temperature and salinity data. 2013-02-26
LAB30 salinometers Instruments that measure the salinity of a collected water sample based on its electrical conductivity or optical properties. 2015-02-11
59 sampling extent markers Devices that label the region within which sampling is to be confined such as permanent quadrats and location markers. 2014-06-05
301 satellite positioning systems A network of statellites that generate signals that allow a receiver to determine its position such as GPS. 2007-11-20
121 satellite tracking system A network of satellites that determines the position of a transponder by triangulation such as Argos. Generally used to track surface buoys for the determination of Lagrangian currents. 2016-03-10
71 scallop dredgesDEPRECATED Code deprecated on 20Dec2019: created in error. Description was: Rigid structures with a chain mail collecting bag, towed on the seabed to target king scallops. Generally used by towing several dredges side by side behind the vessel (source: seafish.org). 2019-12-19
305 scatterometers Sensors that measure the reflection or scattering effect produced while scanning the surface of the earth. Primarily used to measure near surface winds over the oceans. 2007-11-20
111 sea level recorders Instruments that make smoothed measurements of the elevation of the sea surface relative to a fixed vertical datum. 2015-11-30
60 sediment dredges Bucket-like containers hauled over the sea bed collecting integrated samples of surface sediment along a segment of ship track. 2010-07-20
50 sediment grabs A device that collects a sample of surface sediment including manually deployed equipment like a shovel or bucket. 2007-11-20
52 sediment porewater samplers A device that collects samples of pore water from various horizons below the seabed. 2007-11-20
378 sediment profile imagers Devices that provide in-situ still or video images of a section including bottom water, the undisturbed sediment-water interface and the upper sediment layers. 2010-04-22
55 sediment settling tubes A specialised water bottle that both collects water samples and provides a settling velocity experiment apparatus. 2007-11-20
391 sediment suction samplers Devices that collect samples from the sediment layer surface using suction. The mechanism of suction can be accomplished by either vacuum, by pressure difference between the air inside the sampler and surrounding water, by pumping water directly into the sampler or by under pressure air to elevate the sediment inside the sampler. Devices are typically diver- or remotely-operated. 2019-12-19
376 sediment surface markers Physical markers that allow changes in the position of the boundary between sediment and air or water by visible comparison against marked graduations in units of measurement of dimension length. 2010-04-22
33 sediment traps A collector of particulates as they sink through the water column. 2013-02-26
155 seismic refraction systems A network of seismometers or geophones plus an energy source that determine geologic structure by detecting waves refracted by subsurface layers. 2007-11-20
368 seismometers Devices placed on the ground or seabed to measure physical movement of that substrate. 2010-02-19
81 shipboard incubators A device mounted on a ship that holds water samples under conditions of controlled temperature or controlled temperature and illumination. 2008-01-10
152 sidescan sonars Instruments with directional acoustic transmitters and receivers fitted to an underwater platform that emit fan-shaped pulses down toward the seafloor across a wide angle perpendicular to the path of the platform through the water. 2007-11-20
84 sieves and filters Devices that separate solid particles larger than a particular size from a sample collected by another device that is a suspension of solid particles in a liquid or gas. 2013-02-26
156 single-beam echosounders Instruments that measure water depth at a single point below the platform by timing pulses of sound reflected on the seafloor. 2013-02-26
SBAG single-bubble airgun Array of air gun tuned in order to obtain the necessary energy wile reducing the size of the air guns. 2013-02-26
153 single-channel seismic reflection systems An energy source of unspecified frequency plus a single string of towed hydrophones (streamer) that determine geologic structure by detecting waves reflected by subsurface layers. 2010-02-19
56 snow and ice samplers A device that collects a sample of frozen seawater or accumulated frozen precipitation. 2013-02-26
185 sound velocity sensors Instrument that measures the velocity of sound in seawater. 2013-02-26
LAB20 spectrophotometers Instruments measuring the relative absorption of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths in the near infra-red, visible and ultraviolet wavebands by samples. 2011-04-15
380 submarine cables Electrical conductors routed beneath the sea and connecting land stations. Oceanographic interest focuses on changes in electrical resistance that may be related to the magnitude of Lagrangian currents. 2010-09-15
303 surface current radars Instruments that measure the speed and direction of sea surface travel by timing reflected radio waves. 2013-02-26
306 synthetic aperture radars Instruments that generate maps of radar reflectivity through the synthesis of multiple pulses from a moving platform. 2008-01-10
309 terrestrial radiometers Sensors that measure the intensity and nature of electromagnetic radiation in a manner optimised for the quantification of terrestrial phenomena. 2008-01-10
LAB28 thermal conductivimeters Laboratory instruments that determine the thermal conductivity of rock or sediment samples (including unopened cores). 2010-02-19
LAB50 thermal cyclers Instruments that repeatedly heat and cool samples in a series of steps. They are typically used to amplify segments of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They can also be used to facilitate other temperature-sensitive reactions, including restriction enzyme digestion or rapid diagnostics. 2020-06-10
LAB47 thermal ionisation mass spectrometers Instruments that measure isotopic ratios using thermal ionisation. Purified samples are heated to cause ionisation of atoms. Subsequently, ions are focused into a beam by an electromagnet and then separated into individual beams based on their mass/charge ratio. 2016-03-10
135 thermistor chains A group of rigidly-mounted temperature sensors sampled by a common data logger held at various depths in the water column. 2007-11-20
133 thermosalinographs Temperature and conductivity sensors mounted on a sea-surface platform continuously measuring a surface water supply. 2007-11-20
TFSAMP thin film metal samplers Metal samplers comprising a filter, a diffusive gel layer and a resin layer that scavenge trace metals by diffusion from water bodies or in-situ sediment pore waters. A constant concentration gradient is set up in the gel from which the metal concentration in the sampled medium may be determined. 2013-04-23
LAB12 titrators Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquites of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached. 2008-01-10
TRTG tracking tags Devices attached to living organisms with the purpose of determining the location of those organisms as a function of time after tagging and release. 2015-08-04
124 transmissometers Systems that measure the attenuation of electromagnetic radiation by the water column. Includes human observer plus Secchi Disk. 2007-11-20
51 unconsolidated sediment corers Devices designed to collect samples of unconsolidated sediment from between the surface and depths from centimetres to 10s of metres with minimal disturbance of the sediment structure. 2014-11-12
180 underwater camerasDEPRECATED Code deprecated on 18Sep2020: created in error. Description was: All types of photographic equipment that may be deployed underwater including stills, video, film and digital systems. 2020-09-18
999 unknown The correct value is not known to and not computable by the creator of this information. However a correct value probably exists. 2007-11-20
LAB35 voltammetry analysers Instruments that obtain information about an analyte by applying a potential and measuring the current produced in the analyte. 2012-08-02
302 water body temperature sensor Sensors that measure the intensity and nature of electromagnetic radiation emitted from the Earth in a manner optimised for the determination of water body surface temperature. 2010-11-19
377 water level markers Fixed physical markers that allow changes in the position of the boundary between a water body and the atmosphere by visible comparison against marked graduations in units of measurement of dimension length. 2010-04-22
WPS water pressure sensors Sensors measuring hydrostatic pressure that are capable of withstanding the physical demands made by in-situ measurements in water bodies. Depending upon the mode of deployment they may measure sea level, waves, mooring performance or the depth of a profiling instrument. 2015-02-11
134 water temperature sensor An instrument that measures the temperature of the water with which it is in contact. 2013-02-26
SNWG watergun A marine seismic energy source divided into two chambers, the firing chamber, which contains compressed air, and the other chamber, which is filled with water. When the gun is fired, the compressed air forces the shuttle downward and this expels the water from the lower chamber. The shot of water leaving the gun creates a void behind it and the collapse of water into this void creates an acoustic wave. 2010-10-18
110 wave recorders Instrument that measures water column surface wave parameters including height, period, direction and energy spectra. 2007-11-20